Tamaulipas, México

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    History

    Tamaulipas, Mexico was first settled by various tribes in 4000 B.C., including the Olmec, Chichimec, and Huastec tribes. In 1445, the Aztecs, commanded by Moctezuma I Ilhuicamina, gained control of the region and maintained control of the land until 1466. During this time the Aztec people failed to completely conquer the Comanche and Apache people.[1]

    Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba led the first Spaniards into Tamaulipas in 1517; however he was defeated by the native Huastec people. [1] The first Spaniard to defeat the indigenous people of Tamaulipas was Hernan Cortes in 1522. Cortes captured the city of Chila, and attempted to convert locals to Catholicism, an effort that ultimately failed. [1] The first Spanish settlement was Tampico, founded in 1554. [2] Settlement of Tamaulipas was furthered by Franciscan priests when they founded missions and began converting members of the indigenous population. During this time, widespread cattle and sheep ranching by the Spanish bolstered the area’s economy while forcing native populations from their original lands.[1]

    Tamaulipas was incorporated as a province of New Spain, named Nuevo Santander, in 1746. Early attempts to bolster the economy and population of Tamaulipas were hindered by a lack of transportation infrastructure. Attempts to build the infrastructure necessary for economic and population growth were made in order to prevent the French from continuing their colonization south into Spanish territory. [1] Following a call for independence in the late 1700s, native rebels of Tamaulipas won important military victories in San Antonio Bejar (present day San Antonio, Texas). By 1750, the region had been greatly influenced by the desire for independence, the invasion of the United States, and the struggle amongst liberals and conservatives, creating a strong sense of autonomy. [2]

    The War of Independence began in 1810 when native inhabitants of Mexico began fighting Spanish Colonists; however, the revolt was stopped by Spanish royalist troops. In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain and in 1824 Tamaulipas joined the Mexican federation of states. [1] In 1840, after suffering at the hand of President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Tamaulipas became a member of the Republic of the Rio Grande along with the states of Nuevo Leon and Coahuila, independent of Mexico. The republic was quickly defeated by the Mexican army. [2]

    From 1850 – 1900 the country was characterized by political instability until President Porfirio Diaz brought economic development to the region. This development continued into the 20th century as Tamaulipas increased commerce with the United States. Tamaulipas became a manufacturing center for products exported to the U.S. after the North American Free Trade Agreement was passed in 1994. [1]


     

    State Details

    Latitude:  27 º 40 '- 22 º 12' ° N[3]

    Longitude: 97º 08' - 100º 08'º W[3]

    Founded: October 3, 1824 [4]

    Capital: Ciudad Victoria [5]

     

     

    Tamaulipas is comprised of six regions as outlined below[6].

    Border Region (Fronteriza)
    Camargo, Diaz Ordaz, Guerrero, Matamoros, Mier, Miguel Aleman, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, Rio Bravo, Valle Hermoso. [6] 
     
    San Fernando Valley (Valle De San Fernando)
    Burgos, Cruillas, Mendez, San Fernando.  [6] 
    Central Region (Centro)
    Abasolo, Guemez, Hidalgo, Jimenez, Llera, Mainero, Padilla, San Carlos, San Nicolas, Soto La Marina, Victoria Villa de Casas, Villagran. [6] 
     
    Altiplano (Altiplano)
    Bustamante, Jaumave, Miquihana, Palmillas, Tula. [6] 
     
    Mante (Mante)
    Old Morelos, Farias, Mante New Morelos, Ocampo, Xicotencatl.  [6] 
     
    Southern Region (Sur)
    Aldama, Altamira, Gonzalez, Madero, Tampico.  [6] 
     
    Governor- Egidio Toerre Cantu
    The state governor is a democratically elected position that is a non-renewable six year term.  [4]

    Regiones Picture.png[6]

     

    Political Base

     

    Party

    Biography

    Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

    PRI logo.jpg       [7]

    Founder Plutarco Calles[8]

    Established in 1929 as National Revolutionary Party [8]

    1938 renamed Mexican Revolutionary Party [8]

    1946 renamed to Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) [8]

    Mexico's ruling political party [8]

     

    National Action Party (PAN)

    PAN logo.jpg[9]

    Founded in 1939[10]

    Founded by Manuel Gomez Moran [11]

    Strong support from Coman Catholic Church, Urban middle class and bussiness sector. [10] [11]

     

    Party of Democratic Revolution (PDR)

    PRD Logo.jpg[12]

    Established in 1989[13]

    Founded by Cuauhtemoc Cardenas [14]

    70 percent of the current leadership are fomer members of the Institutional Revolutionary Party PRI [13]

    Has a strong following in central and southern Mexico. [12]

     

     

    Religious Ideologies

    Ideology

    Percentage of Population

    Roman Catholic 73% about 2,009,852 persons [4]
    Protestant 8% about 220,257 persons [4]
    No Religion About 5% over 140,000 persons [4]
    Jehovan's Witnesses < 1% about 39,461 persons [4]
    Mormons < 1% about 10,094 persons [4]
    Seventh-Day Adventists < 1% about 8,148 persons [4]

    Demographics

    Population[15][16][17]

    Population Tamaulipas
    Population in 2000 2,753,222 
    Population in 2012 3,268,554
    Population difference between 2000 and 2010  515,332
    Percent of national population in Tamaulipas %2.9
    Population Density 34 people per sq. kilometer
    Percent of Population in Urban Area %87 and four municipalities of Tamaulipas have %55 of the state population
    Population under 14 years of age 1,004,324
    Working age population (WAP) 2,264,230
    Economically Inactvie Population (EIP) 930,280
    Economically  Active Population (EAP) 1,300,652
    Active Population 1,238,575
    Inactive Population 62,077

    Gender[18][19][20]

    Gender Tamaulipas Mexico
    Male  1,493,573  
    Female 1,530,665  
    Male to Female Ratio 97.8 95.4
    Marriages in 2009 17,765 558,913
    Divorces in 2009 1,984 84,302

    Race[20][19]

    Percent of Immigration Tamaulipas
    Migrant Population -3,400
    Immigrant Population 3,800
    Non-Native Population 23,390
    Rate of immigration to the United States in 2009 9,100

    Age[16][19][20]

    Age Tamaulipas
    Minors 1,130,408
    Adults 1,893,830
    Older than 60 years 245,476
    Citizens under the age of 30 years old %55
    Life Expectancy 77 years old

     

    Birth and Death Rate Tamaulipas Mexico
    Births in 2009 72,381 2,571,307
    Total fertility rate in 2010 2,560 2,390
    Fertility rate of people ages 15 to 19 in 2010 64,310 56,860
    Male Births in 2009 36,538 1,296,770
    Female Births in 2009 35,843 1,279,883
    General Deaths in 2009 1,699 563,516
    Crude Death Rate in 2010 4,600 NA
    Life Expectancy at Birth in 2012 75,300 NA

    Disabilities[20]

    People that claim health care and Social insurance 1,958,142

    There are approximately 36 general hospitals, 472 outpatient centers, and 90 surgical centers in Tamaulipas.

    Housing[18][19][20]

    Housing Tamaulipas Mexico
    Total Occupied Private Dwellings in 2010 901,244 28,607,568
    Average occupancy in private houses in 2010 3.6 3.9
    Percentage of households with piped water in 2010 %95.500

    %91.50

    Households in 2010 868,244 2,8159,373
    Female-Headed Households in 2010 208,940 6,916,206
    Male-Headed Households in 2010 659,304 21,243,167
    People that live in Indigenous Households 42,420 NA

     

    House Tamaulipas
    Registered Households 779,846
    Houses that are common houses or apartments 789,420
    Houses that don’t have floors 39,957
    Houses that consist of only one room 75,877
    Houses equipped with normal sanitary installations 742,254
    Houses connected to water supply 713,271
    Houses that have electricity 718,518
    Houses with a computer 136,936
    Houses with a washing machine 545,578
    Houses with at least one TV 718,518

    Employment[17]

    Employees in Economy Activity Tamaulipas
    Percent of national level of manufacturing sector %3.8
    Percent of national level of commercial sector %2.7
    Agriculture 97,705
    Mining, Manufacturing, Electricity and Water 257,800
    Construction 109,634
    Commerce 224,586
    Other Services 530,706
    Non Specified 20,736

     

    Average Salaries Per Day in Tamaulipas Pesos
    Average Salaries 222.6
    Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 130.5
    Extractive industry 369.2
    Processing industries 247.1
    Construction 179.9
    Electronic and Water Supply 539.3
    Commerce 208.4
    Transportation and Communications 302
    Services to companies and individuals 236.8
    Social Services 260.2

    Economy[20]Agriculture, fishing, and tourism are the primary economic activities of Tamaulipas. However, manufacturing accounts for about 21% of the Tamaulipas’s economy. Trade activities account for about 19% of the economy, followed by service-based companies at 17%, transportation and communications at 14%, finance and insurance at 13%, agriculture and livestock at 9%, construction at 6%, and mining at 1%.

    Industry[20]About 350 assembly plants (maquiladoras) are located in Tamaulipas along the border with the United States. Over 150,000 workers are employed in maquiladoras. In the southern part of the state, chemical and oil production facilities manufacture acrylic fiber, plastic resins, synthetic rubber, and polymers.

    Agriculture[20]Part of the fertile lowland area known as La Huasteca, Tamaulipas has the climate and conditions for agriculture and it is the main producer of sorghum in Mexico. Other major crops of Tamaulipas include corn, cotton, and wheat. More than half of Tamaulipas’s land area is devoted to livestock. About 4.6 million hectares of pastures and meadows support over one million cattle, 250,000 goats, 200,000 pigs, and 110,000 sheep.

    Education

    Tamaulipas's illiteracy rate has dropped 5% in the last 15 years[16]. The average citizen of Tamaulipas has an average of 8.7 years of schooling and %11 of Tamaulipas citizens have a professional degree[16].

    Primary Education[19]

      Tamaulipas Mexico
    Five years and older with primary education in 2010 977,903 3,6467,510
    Teachers in Special Education 1,172 32.501

    Education Infrastructure in 2008-2009[17]

      Senior High School Higher Education
    Schools 340 247
    Students 106,858 99,958
    Teachers 6,843 8,11

    Population with a High Technical School Degree in 2008-2009[17]

      Undergraduates Graduates
    Total 1,178 903
    Health Science 91 71
    Social and Administrative Science 177 143
    Enginering and Technology 910 689

    Population  with a Bachelor's Degree in 2008-2009[17]

      Undergraduates Graduates
    Total 10,950 8,142
    Agricultural 82 116
    Health Science 1,456 1,172
    Natural and Exact Sciences 29 27
    Social and Administrative Sciences 4,955 3,546
    Education and Humanities 479 238
    Engineering and Technology 3,949 3,043

    Language

    Only %1 of those over five years old speak an indigenous language in Tamaulipas and the most common indigenous language is Nahuatl followed by Huatesco[16]. There are approximately 41 people that live in Tamaulipas that only an speak indeigenous langauge and there are approximately 19,182 people that speak both an indigenous language and Spanish[19].

    Issues

    Drug Violence

    Many of the major issues in Tamaulipas are related to the violence between the drug cartels and the Mexican government. The drug war has claimed over 50,000 lives in Mexico over the past five years, and the majority of the civil unrest in Tamaulipas is driven by the discontent with that violence.[21]

    Protests erupted in Tamaulipas on April 6, 2011, as police began to unearth mass graves which were discovered in the nearby countryside. People took to the streets in 38 cities, bearing signs with the slogan, “Ya Basta”, which simply means “Enough”. In total, police identified 72 corpses from the mass graves. [22] Mexico has suffered from an increase in innocent victims as a result of the drug war, and most of the victims found in the mass grave had no obvious ties to the drug-trade.

    The Movement for Peace with Justice and Dignity was started in response to this very issue. Javier Sicilia, who has been at the forefront of the protests, founded the movement in April 2011 after his son, Juan Francisco, and six other people were murdered by suspected drug-gang members.[23] Reportedly, Juan Francisco and his friends had a loud conversation about the drug war, and all seven were later found dead in a car next to a note that said, “This is what happens to those who make anonymous calls to soldiers.”[22]

    The group has organized several marches to bring together relatives of victims of violence, and it is demanding an end to the deployment of government troops who are attempting to combat the drug cartels. Sicilia proposed that the Mexican government should make a pact with criminal organizations to end violence and the deaths of innocents. However, President Felipe Calderon has made it clear that withdrawing from the fight against the drug cartels is not an option. “On the contrary, we must redouble our efforts because if we stop fighting they will kidnap, rob and kill all over the country.”[24]

    Another protest was organized on May 5, 2011, where demonstrators participated in a silent march against violence. About 200 people attended the “March for Peace”, in Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, which was lead by members of political parties, journalists, and social organizations.[25] Several other marches, protesting the violence, are being planned in dozens of other cities and towns.[24] 

     

    Violence against Journalists

    Violence against journalists is also a major issue in Tamaulipas. According to the International Press Institute’s Death Watch, Mexico is the most dangerous country in the world this year for journalists, with 12 reporters killed in 2011.[26] The Inter American Press Association (IAPA) reported that 2011 was the most tragic year for journalists in the region in the past 20 years, with deaths in the Americas accounting for almost one third of all killed journalists in the world.[27] Many of these crimes against journalists, 98% according to the Federation of Latin American and Caribbean Journalists, are not investigated and go unpunished.[27] Drug cartels specifically target reporters and journalists in order to censor the local media. For over a decade Tamaulipas has been a “zone of silence”.[28]

    On September 23, 2011, a journalist named Maria Elizabeth Macias Castro was kidnapped and murdered. Her body was found the following day, and she had been decapitated and left in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. A note, signed with the Z that identifies the Los Zetas drug cartel, was left next to her body saying that she was killed because of her reports. Macias Castro was also a moderator and administrator of some forums in Nuevo Laredo en Vivo, a website used by citizens to report on drug cartels.[26]

    In another incident, three journalists from Tamaulipas, Arturo Moreno, Juan Carlos Alarcon, and Jorge Flores, were assaulted and illegally detained by police on September 23, 2011. In response to the violence, several Mexican journalists deactivated their accounts on social media networks to avoid future attacks.[26] 

     

    Corruption

    Corruption is another big issue in Tamaulipas. The drug cartels are able to bribe people in positions of authority in order to gain favor and influence in the area. The main forms of corruption in Tamaulipas are political corruption, corruption of prison guards, and police corruption.

    Political Corruption

    Political corruption is a major issue because it gives members of organized crime a certain degree of power over the lawmakers in the region. In Tamaulipas, there are blatant ties between local government officials and the cartels. In 2004, the federal deputy for the Worker’s Party, Juan Antonio Guajardo Anzaldua,released some photographs which showed alleged members of the Gulf Cartel collaborating with government officials. Then, in 2010, after months of documenting the links between members of the Cartel and the government, Guajardo Anzaldua found evidence to support the fact that Governor Tomas Yarrington Ruvalcaba was the "political wing" of the cartel.[29]

    Political corruption continues to be a current issue in Tamaulipas. In November 2011, former Mayor, Oscar Perez Inguanzo, was arrested by State Police in Tampico. He was charged with misuse of powers and authority, improper exercise of public functions and forgery, and misuse of public and private documents.[30]  The complaint was also filed against former Secretary Arturo Medina Fregoso, the former Mayor Fernando Altamirano Bonfire and former Treasurer Jofre Victor Mora.

    Some sources suggest that drug traffickers are able to influence the electoral process by funding some of the political campaigns. Conversely, if the politician can’t be bought, they are either killed or threatened until they comply. Some municipal seats for deputies and city council members remain vacant due to threats from cartel members.[31] These tactics essentially allow political decisions to be made by the cartels rather than the citizens of Tamaulipas. 

     

    Corruption of Prison Guards

    Corruption of prison guards became very apparent as an important issue in Tamaulipas in 2011 when the Mexican government stated that more than 400 inmates have been able to escape within a 15-month period due to corruption of prison authorities.[32] From January 2010 to March 2011, over 400 inmates were able to escape during 84 incidents in five different prisons run by the state authorities. In a single incident on July 15 2011, 59 prisoners escaped from the Executions and Sanctions Center in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas.[33]  Seven other inmates were killed, and five prison guards disappeared during the escape.

    The Interior Ministry condemned these incidents, calling them “unacceptable”, and promised to open “a thorough investigation to bring to justice those public servants who have betrayed the public service duties.”[34] The government also announced that the Mexican Army and Federal police will increase surveillance outside of the prisons to prevent future escapes. They will also assist local law enforcement in locating and re-arresting inmates who have already escaped.[32]

     

    Police Corruption

    In Tamaulipas, police have the lowest salaries in the entire country. The average state police officer makes around 3,618 pesos ($250 USD) per month.[35]  These low salaries, combined with the fact that Tamaulipas is a violence-riddled border state, creates a poor environment for police officers.  A recent study from the Senate’s Public Security Committee reported that state and municipal police officers could earn up to 7,000 pesos per month (about $540 USD) by working with criminal organizations.[35] All of these factors encourage police to work with organized crime groups.

    In April 2011, 16 municipal police officers were detained by federal authorities in San Fernando, Tamaulipas. The officers allegedly provided protection to a local Los Zetas cell. The officers were also accused of covering up the mass homicides and disposal of bodies by the members of the cell.[36]

    In another incident on May 19, 2011, four law enforcement officials, including three Tamaulipas State Police officers and one group commander for the Tamaulipas State Police, were arrested by the Mexican Marines in Ciudad Victoria. The arrests took place after authorities received anonymous extortion and kidnapping complaints from civilians about the four men.[37] After taking the three police officers into custody, they pointed to their commander, Lara Castelan, as the man in charge of organizing local kidnapping and extortion schemes for the Zetas.[38] The Mexican government is taking some action to combat police corruption in the state; however, it is still very common.

     

    Extortion

    Many citizens, including shopkeepers, businessmen, and bus drivers, are extorted by the drug cartels in Tamaulipas. Many cities are operation centers for the cartels, and the local people now have to pay a fee for protection or to keep from being seen as enemies.[39] The cartels have seen decreasing revenues from trafficking as a result of interdictions by authorities, so extortion is being increasingly used in order to continue funding their operations.[40] Some of the cartels have even set up bank accounts so that businessmen can make direct deposits.[40]

    Extortion of bus drivers is also fairly common because their jobs often require them to drive through cartel-controlled territories. The cartels demand money in exchange for security and to guarantee safe travel on the roads.[41] The drivers say that they demand between 200 to 1,000 pesos ($17 to $87 USD), but there is no real guarantee the drivers will be left alone.[41] 

     

    Threat Groups

    Gulf Cartel

    Los Zetas

    Major and Recent Events

    • On February 13th, 2012, military personnel of the 8th Military Zone and IV Military Region were on patrol when they found 150 packages of marijuana covered in canvas and hay in Rancherias, Camargo. The drugs had a total weight of 531 kilograms.[42]
    • On February 10th, 2012, Customs agents stopped an eighteen wheeler at a checkpoint in Reynosa. After conducting a search, a backpack was found in the truck cabin that contained 20 packets of money. They were wrapped in black carbon paper and duct tape, and totaled 200,000 USD. The money was handed over to the Public Ministry of the State along with the truck driver and one passenger who were arrested at the scene.[43]
    • On February 7th, 2012, personnel from the IV Military Region and 8th Military Zone, working as part of the operation “Noreste” conducted three raids in three different locations within Miguel Aleman. The military personnel rescued 73 Central American hostages, out of which 18 were minors. Four suspects were also arrested, however they have not been identified or linked to any group.[44]
    • On January 25th, 2012, soldiers on patrol on a path from the "Marte R. Gomez" dam to the town of Guardados de Arriba in Miguel Aleman, discovered 90 packages of marijuana hidden among bushes. The total weight of the drugs added up to 905 kilograms.[45]
    • Three people were taken hostage in Altamira. Nothing is known about the kidnapping itself, however, Marines rescued the hostages based on information from an anonymous tip on 01/26/2012. All three hostages were found to have wounds on their heads and bodies, but all were alive. No group has been linked to the hostage taking.[46]
    • On January 24th, 2012, personnel from the IV Military Region of the 8th Military Zone working as part of operation "Noreste" seized three tons, 50 kilograms of marijuana in Miguel Aleman. The drugs were found buried in a plastic container, within 462 packages, on a dirt road in the town of Guardados de Abajo.[47]
    • On January 23rd, 2012, gunmen opened fire on Army Military officials in Reynosa on the Riberena highway. Three civilian vehicles were shot, which caused an unknown number of casualties, and blocked the highway. The gunmen escaped to the city center and began an extended chase with the military personnel. No arrests were made.[48]
    • On January 22nd, 2012, unidentified assailants in a moving vehicle threw two explosive devices out the window targeting the Matamoros Public Security facilities. Military personnel were dropping off detainees at the time of the attack. Two soldiers were injured. No group has been linked to the event.[49]
    • On January 17th, 2012, a joint team of Military and State Public Security Personnel located a safe house for an unidentified criminal group in Altamira. Six kidnapping victims were rescued and two suspects were arrested.[50]
    • On January 13th, 2012, military personnel seized 26 packages of marijuana in Reynosa. The total weight of the drugs amounted to 107 kilograms, 200 grams. The marijuana packages were found hidden on the banks of the Rio Grande.
    • Military personnel discovered a weapons cache in Miguel Aleman while on patrol. Under a smoothed dirt area, the military personnel found two .223 cal rifles, one 7.62x39mm rifle, one 9mm submachine gun pistol, 34 magazines, 1,313 assorted rounds, and two military cartridge belts. No group has been associated with the weapons.[51]
    • On January 11th, 2012, a group of armed men arrived at the offices of the State Attorney General (PGJE) in Ciudad Madero, riding in three vehicles. They fired at the building killing four and wounding three more as well as damaging the property. Three of the assailants were later arrested and were identified as Armando Mercader Vicencio, Adur Salman Mustafa Gonzalez, and Jesus Martin Avelin Cruz. They have not been linked to any group.[52]
    • On January 10th, 2012, military personnel from the Attorney General of the Republic (PGR) discovered an abandoned truck with 17 packages of marijuana weighing 172 kilograms. No group was connected to the drugs.[53]
    • Federal police defused a bomb that had been discovered by Ministerial police in Ciudad Victoria. They had found a blue 1989 Chevrolet Corsica without license plates parked in an unauthorized area emitting a strong odor of fuel. The Federal explosive specialists discovered a timer connected to a cellular phone with two cables directed to a load, apparently gunpowder and two gasoline containers. No group has been connected to the bomb.[54]
    • On January 9th, 2012, Los Zetas members tortured, shot to death and then hung two suspected Gulf Cartel members. The bodies were left hanging on the Boca Juan Capitan bypass in Ciudad Victoria. A narco banner was left with the bodies signed by “El Comando Z.”[55]
    • On January 4th, 2012, military personnel were on patrol in Rio Grande River, Reynosa, and found 132 packages of marijuana weighing a total of 667 kilograms. No group has been connected to the drugs. The Federal Attorney General (PGR)has opened a preliminary investigation.[56] 
       

    Security Operations

    • On January 18, 2012, Federal Attorney General initiated two preliminary investigations because military personnel seized 381 kilos 700 grams of marijuana in Fraccionamiento on the Rio Grande River.[57]
    • Mexican Army personnel seized over 500 kilograms of marijuana, an armored vehicle and various firearms and ammunitions from a  house in Matamoros. Two suspects fled the house moments earlier and were not captured.[58]
    • On January 8, 2012, in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, military personnel located 66 packages containing 288 kilograms of marijuana.[59]
    • On January 4, 2012, Federal Attorney General initiated preliminary investigation because military personnel found 132 packages of marijuana with a total weight of 667 kilos in Rio Grande River, Reynosa.[60]
    • 1,500 Federal police officers arrived in Tamaulipas on January 2nd and joined the 8,000 military soldiers who arrived to relieve other troops  on December 30.[61]
    • Military quarters have been built or are planned for at least three Tamaulipas cities. The first which has been completed is in Ciudad Mier, the second is under construction and should be complete in February 2012 is in San Fernando, and the third, which is expected to be completed in 2012, is in Ciudad Mante. The quarters in San Fernando are expected to house a 650 member battalion.[62]
    • Personnel from the IV Military Region in Tamaulipas reported the arrests of 15 individuals, five deaths and the seizure of over 100 weapons between December 24 and December 30. Seizures included rifles, hand guns, and grenades in addition to marijuana, diesel fuel and pyrotechnic material.[63]
    • On December 21 and 22, personnel from the IV Military region seized over 1700 kilograms of marijuana along with several rifles in Ciudad Mier and Ciudad Miguel Aleman.[64]
    • On December 22, 2011, the Secretariat of National Defense reported that military personnel arrested 18 individuals in possession of an arsenal in Tamaulipas.[65]
    • On December 21, 2011, Jalisco police killed six Los Zetas gunmen traveling two armored vehicles in a confrontation that led to the edge of Zacatecas, and seized two 40 caliber grenade launchers among other weapons and ammunition.[65]
    • On December 15, 2011, military personnel of the IV Military Region and 8th Military Zone seized one ton 620 kilograms of marijuana, 65 rounds of ammunition, and one grenade in Nueva Ciudad Guerrero, and 136 kilograms of marijuana, 4,636 rounds of ammunition, and 73 magazines in Reynosa, Tamaulipas.[66]
    • On December 12, 2011, military personnel from the IV Military Region seized nine armored vehicles, two machine gun belts, 20 rifles, 3,508 rounds of ammunition, 143 magazines, and one house in Rio Bravo, and 556 kilograms of marijuana in Ciudad Mier, Tamaulipas.[67]
    • On December 10, 2011, military personnel killed 11 gunmen in Valle Hermoso, arrested two individuals, seized 73 weapons, and more than 3,000 rounds.  On the same day SEDENA reported military personnel in Valle Hermoso returned fire and killed four individuals, arrested 18 individuals, and seized 47 rifles, 297 magazines, and 7,107 rounds.[65]
    • On December 8, 2011, military personnel in the 8/a. Military Zone in Reynosa and Miguel Aleman, Tamaulipas, seized four tons and 314 kilograms of marijuana, $50,000 USD, 69 magazines, and 2,038 bullets of different calibers among other items.[68]
    • On December 5, 2011, military personnel from the 8th Military Zone seized 266 kilograms of marijuana, 158 magazines for various firearms, and 1,985 rounds of ammunition for various firearms in Colonia Villa Florida Reynosa, Tamaulipas. On the same date, troops at a checkpoint on a highway Reynosa-Monterrey detained a motorist with 396 kilos of marijuana.[69]
    • On December 4, 2011, personnel detained a woman carrying 643 kilograms of marijuana in Reynosa, Tamaulipas.[70]
    • On November 30, 2011, in Nuevo Laredo, personnel from the Secretariat of National Defense detained a tractor-trailer that contained 59 packages of marijuana with a total weight of one ton, 74 kilograms. On the same date, near Reynosa, military personnel seized two tons, 192 kilograms of marijuana.[71]
    • On November 25, 2011, Attorney General's Office, the Secretariat of National Defense, and personnel from the Internal Control destroyed over 13 tons of marijuana in Reynosa that were collected from 36 cases in Reynosa and Miguel Aleman, Tamaulipas.[72]
    • On November 25, 2011, in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, marines captured Ezequiel Cardenas-Rivera, “El Junior,” the son of the drug lord Antonio Ezequiel Cardenas-Guillen, “Tony Tormenta,” the former leader of the Gulf Cartel. Four other alleged members of the Gulf Cartel were also arrested during the operation.[73]
    • On November 23, 2011, military personnel from the 8th Military Zone seized two tons, 88 kilos of marijuana. The operation was carried out by air and ground forces near Municipio Miguel Aleman.[74]
    • On November 22, 2011, military personnel in the 8th Military Zone, IV Military Region, seized 48 rifles, one rocket launcher, two grenade launchers, 10 attachment grenades, 37,900 different caliber cartridges, and several pieces tactical equipment among other items in Miguel Aleman, Tamaulipas.[75]
    • On November 17, 2011, federal police seized 300 kilograms of drugs that looked like marijuana in abandoned home near kilometer marker 26 of Reynosa- Diaz highway. The seizure was made after exchange of information between the Federal Police and the U.S. Marshals Service, Southern District of Texas in the United States.[76]
    • On November 15, 2011, military personnel seized 500 kilograms of marijuana packed in 214 packages and wrapped  in cinnamon colored tape in Reynosa, after smelling suspicious odor coming from one of the buildings.[77]
    • On November 10, 2011, soldiers assigned to the 8th Military Zone, IV Military Region and participating in Operacion “Noreste,” seized 676 kilos of marijuana from a pit used by organized crime groups as an underground warehouse in Camargo, Tamaulipas.[78]
    • On November 6, 2011, 8th Military Zone personnel seized 2,913 kilograms of marijuana in Miguel Aleman, Tamaulipas.[79]
    • On November 3, 2011, the Secretariat of National Defense through the Command of the IV Military Region, the 8th Military Zone, and military personnel with jurisdiction in different municipalities along the border of Tamaulipas, among other items seized five tons 220 kilos of marijuana, 32 rifles, 12,915 rounds of ammunition, 518 magazines, three grenade launchers, and 13 vehicles (three were bullet proof vehicles).[80]
    • On November 1, 2011, the Attorney General of the Republic initiated three investigations after military seized 1,597 kilograms of marijuana during three separate operations in Tamaulipas.[81]

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